Hummingbird References

Below are a list of hummingbird references, books, journal papers, etc. we have used as sources when writing our hummingbird articles throughout this site.

Attracting Hummingbirds
Day, S., R. Rovansek, and J. Griggs. 2003. The Wildlife Gardener's Guide to Hummingbirds and Songbirds from the Tropics. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.

McKinley, M. 2001. Ortho's All About Attracting Birds. Des Moines, IA: Meredith Books.

McKinley, M. 2001. Ortho's All About Attracting Hummingbirds and Butterflies. Des Moines, IA: Meredith Books.

Roth, S. 1998. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard. 536 Ways to Turn Your Yard and Garden into a Haven for Your Favorite Birds. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, Inc.

Flight Biomechanics
Altshuler, D. L., F. G. Stiles, and R. Dudley. 2004. Of hummingbirds and helicopters: hovering costs, competitive ability, and foraging strategies. American Naturalist 163:16-25.

Tobalske, B. W., D. L. Altshuler, and D. R. Powers. 2004. Take-off mechanics in hummingbirds (Trochilidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 207:1345-1352.

Warrick, Douglas R., B. W. Tobalske, and D. R. Powers. 2005. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird. Nature 435:1095-1097.

Flowers & Pollination
Altshuler, D. L., and C. J. Clark. 2003. Darwin's Hummingbird's. Science 300:588-589.

Bolten, A. B., P. Feinsinger, H. G. Baker, and I. Baker. 1979. On the calculation of sugar concentration
in flower nectar. Oecologia 41:301–304.

Borgella Jr., R., A. A. Snow, and T. A. Gavin. 2001. Species richness and pollen loads of hummingbirds using forest fragments in Southern Costa Rica. Biotropica 33:90-109.

Buzato, S., M. Sazima, and I. Sazima. 2000. Hummingbird-pollinated floras at three Atlantic forest sites. Biotropica 32:824-841.

Canela, M. B. F., and M. Sazima. 2003. Florivory by the crab Armases angustipes (Grapsidae) influences hummingbird visits to Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae). Biotropica 35:289-294.

McDade, L. A., and J. A. Weeks. 2004a. Nectar in hummingbird-pollinated plants I: patters of production and variability in 12 species. Biotropica 36:196-215.

McDade, L. A., and J. A. Weeks. 2004b. Nectar in hummingbird-pollinated plants I: interactions with flower visitors. Biotropica 36:216-230.

Scobelli, S. A., and P. E. Scott. 2002. Visitors and floral traits of a hummingbird-adapted cactus (Echinocereus coccineus) show only minor variation along an elevational gradient. American Midland Naturalist 147:1-15.

Stiles, F. G. 1976. Taste preferences, color preferences, and flower choice in hummingbirds. Condor 78:10-26.

Temeles, E. J., Y. B. Linhart, M. Masonjones, and H. D. Masonjones. 2002. The role of flower width in hummingbird bill length-flower length relationships. Biotropica 34:68-80.

Travers, S. E., E. J. Temeles, and I. Pan. 2003. The relationship between nectar spur curvature in jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) and pollen removal by hummingbird pollinators. Candian Journal of Botany 81:164-170.

Foraging Behavior
Altshuler, D. L., and A. M. Nunn. 2001. Observational learning in Hummingbirds. Auk 118:795-799.

Bouchard, S., M. J. Vonhof, I. M. Brock Fenton, and G. Monette. 2000. Nutrient preferences of Brazilian hummingbirds. Wilson Bulletin 112:558-562.

Campfield, A. F. 2003. Quality of food source affects female visitation and display rates of male broad-tailed hummingbirds. Condor 105:603-606.

Wagner, H. O. 1946. Food and feeding habits of Mexican hummingbirds. Wilson Bulletin 58:69-132.

Wolf, L. L. 1975. "Prostitution" behavior in a tropical hummingbird. Condor 77:140-144.

Dickinson, M.B., ed. 1999. National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C: National Geographic Society.

Pyle, P. 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Part 1: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Bolinas, CA: Slate Creek Press.

Sibley, D.A. 2000. National Audubon Society, The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Metabolic Rate, Daily Energy Expenditure, & Torpor
Bech, C., A. S. Abe, J. F. Steffensen, M. Berger, and J. E. P. W. Bicudo. 1997. Torpor in three species of Brazilian hummingbirds under semi-natural conditions. Condor 99:780-788.

Hiebert, S. M. 1991. Seasonal differences in the response of rufous hummingbirds to food restriction: body mass and the use of torpor. Condor 93:526-537.

Hiebert, S. M., M. Ramenofsky, K. Salvante, J. C. Wingfield, and C. L. Gass. 2000. Noninvasive methods for measuring and manipulating corticosterone in hummingbirds. General and Comparative Endocrinology 120:235-247.

Hiebert, S. M., K. G. Salvante, M. Ramenofsky, and J. C. Wingfield. 2000. Corticosterone and nocturnal torpor in the Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 120:220-234.

Lasiewski, R. C. 1962. The energetics of migrating hummingbirds. Condor 64:324.

Lasiewski, R. C. 1963. Oxygen consumption of torpid, resting, active, and flying hummingbirds. Physiological Zoology 36:122-140.

Lasiewski, R. C., and R. J. Lasiewski. 1967. Physiological responses of the blue-throated and Rivoli's hummingbirds. Auk 84:34-48.

Lotz, C. N., C. Martínez del Rio, and S. W. Nicolson. 2003. Hummingbirds pay a high cost for a warm drink. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 173:455-462.

Powers, D. R. 1991. Diurnal variation in mass, metabolic rate, and respiratory quotient in Anna's and Costa's hummingbirds. Physiological Zoology 64:850-870.

Powers, D. R., A. R. Brown, and J. A. Van Hook. 2003. Influence of normal daytime fat deposition on laboratory measurements of torpor use in territorial and nonterritorial hummingbirds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76:389-397.

Powers, D. R., and T. M. Conley. 1994. Field metabolic rate and food consumption of two sympatric hummingbird species in southeastern Arizona. Condor 96:141-150.

Powers, D. R., and T. McKee. 1994. The effect of food availability on time and energy expenditures of territorial and nonterritorial hummingbirds. Condor 96:1064-1075.

Powers, D. R., and K. A. Nagy. 1988. Field metabolic rate and food consumption by free-living Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). Physiological Zoology 61:500-506.

Prinzinger, R., K. Krüger, and K.-L. Schuchmann. 1981. Metabolism-weight relationship in 17 hummingbird species at different temperatures during day and night. Experientia 37:1307-1309.

Stiles, F. G. 1971. Time, energy, and territoriality of the Anna hummingbird (Calypte anna). Science 173:818-821.

Calder, W.A. and E.G. Jones. 1989. Implications of Recapture Data for Migration of the Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) in the Rocky Mountains. Auk 106: 488-489.

Calder, W.A. 1987. Southbound through Colorado: Migration of Rufous Hummingbirds. National Geographic Research 3:40-51.

Wethington, S.M., and S.M. Russell. 2002. The season distribution and abundance of hummingbirds in oak woodland and riparian communities in southeastern Arizona. Condor 105(3): 484-495.

Natural History
Camfield, A. 2004. "Trochilidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 7, 2006 at

Hummingbird. (2006, April 09). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 11, 2006, from

Johnsgard, P.A. 1983. The hummingbirds of North America. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Inst.

Powers, D. R. 1996. Magnificent Hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens). No. 221 in The birds of North America (A. Poole and f. Gill, Eds.). Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and the American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

Powers, D. R. 1999. Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris). No. 430 in The birds of North America (A. Poole and f. Gill, Eds.). Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and the American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

Robinson, T. R., R. R. Sargent, and M. B. Sargent. 1996. Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). In The Birds of North America, No. 204 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Sargent, R., M. Sargent. 2001. Hummingbirds. Pp. 357-365 in C. Elphick, J. Dunning, D. Sibley, eds. The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Schuchmann, K.S. 1999. Order Apodiformes. Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds). In: J.D. Hoyo., A. Elliot, and J. Sargatal, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World: Volume 5. Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Barcelona, Spain: Linx Edicions; 468-535.

Stokes, D.W. and L. Stokes. 1989. A Guide to Bird Behavior, Volume III. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Tyrrell, E.Q. 1985. Hummingbirds. Their Life and Behavior. A Photographic Study of the North American Species. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.

Nectar Composition, Osmoregulation, & Feeding Rate
Baker, H. G. 1975. Sugar concentrations in nectars from hummingbird flowers. Biotropica 7:37-41.

Baker, H. G. 1977. Intraspecific constancy of floral nectar and amino acid complements. Botanical Gazette 138:183-191.

Bertsch, A. 1983. Nectar production of Epilobium angustifolium L. at different air humidities; nectar
sugar in individual flowers and the optimal foraging theory. Oecologia 59:40–48.

Beuchat, C. A., W. A. Calder III, and E. J. Braun. 1990. The integration of osmoregulation and energy balance in hummingbirds. Physiological Zoology 63:1059-1081.

Blem, C. R., L. B. Blem, J. Felix, and J. van Gelder. 2000. Rufous hummingbird sucrose preference: precision of selection varies with concentration. Condor 102:235-238.

Blem, C. R., L. B. Blem and C. C. Cosgrove. 1997. Field Studies of rufous hummingbird sucrose preference: does source height affect test results? Journal of Field Ornithology 68(2):245–252.

Brice, A. T. 1992. The essentiality of nectar and arthropods in the diet of the Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 101A:151-155.

Brice, A. T., and C. R. Grau. 1989. Hummingbird nutrition: development of a purified diet for long-term maintenance. Zoo Biology 8:233-237.

Calder, W., L. Calder. 1992. Broad-tailed hummingbird: Selasphorus platycercus. A. Poole, F. Gill, eds. The Birds of North America. Philadelphia: American Ornithologists' Union.

Calder III, W. A., and S. M. Hiebert. 1983. Nectar feeding, diuresis, and electrolyte replacement of hummingbirds. Physiological Zoology 56:325-334.

Hainesworth, R. 1973. On the tongue of a hummingbird: its role in the rate and energetics of
feeding. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 46:65–78.

López-Calleja, M. V., F. Bozinovic, and C. MartÍnez del Rio. 1997. Effect s of surgar concentration on hummingbird feeding and energy use. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 118A:1291-1299.

McWhorter, T. J. and Martínez del Rio, C. (1999). Food ingestion and water turnover in hummingbirds: how much dietary water is absorbed? J. Exp. Biol. 202, 2851-2858.

McWhorter, T. J., and C. Martínez del Rio. 1999. Food ingestion and water turnover in hummingbirds: how much dietary water is absorbed? Journal of Experimental Biology 202:2851-2858.

McWhorter, T. J., and C. Martínez del Rio. 2000. Does gut function limit hummingbird food intake? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 73:313-324.

McWhorter, T. J., C. Martínez del Rio, and B.Pinshow. 2003. Modulated ingested water absorption by Palestine sunbirds: evidence for adaptive regulation. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:659-666.

Plowright, R. C. 1981. Corolla depth and nectar concentration: an experimental analysis of hummingbirds.
Oecologia 94:87–94.

Powers, D. R. 1992. Effect of temperature and humidity on evaporative water loss in Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 162:74-84.

Stiles, F. G. 1976. Taste preferences, color preferences, and flower choice in hummingbirds. Condor 78:10-26.

Nitrogen Requirement
Brice, A. T., and C. R. Grau. 1991. Protein requirements of Costa's hummingbirds Calypte costa. Physiological Zoology 64:611-626.

McWhorter, T. J., D. R. Powers, and Carlos Martínez del Rio. 2003. Are hummingbirds facultatively ammonotelic? Nitrogen excretion and requirements as a function of body size. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76:731-743.

Preest, M. R., and C. A. Beuchat. 1997. Ammonia excretion by hummingbirds. Nature 386:561-562.

Preest, M. R., D. G. Folk, and C. A. Beuchat. 2003. Decomposition of nitrogenous compounds by intestinal bacteria in hummingbirds. Auk 120:1091-1101.

Nutrient Absorption
Karasov, W. H., D. Phan, J. M. diamond, and F. L. Carpenter. 1986. Food passage and intestinal nutrient absorption in hummingbirds. Auk 103:453-464.

Schondube, J. E., and C. Martínez del Rio. 2004. Sugar and protein digestion in flowerpiercers and hummingbirds: a comparative test of adaptive convergence. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 174:263-273.

Mayr, G. 2003. Phylogeny of early tertiary swifts and hummingbirds (Aves: Apodiformes). Auk 120:145-151.

Population/Community Biology
Baguete, M., and N. Schtickzelle. 2003. Local population dynamics are important to the conservation of metapopulations in highly fragmented landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology 40:404-412.

Hilton Jr., B., and M.W. Miller. 2003. Annual survival and recruitment in a Ruby-throated Hummingbird population, excluding the effect of transient individuals. Condor 105:54-62.

Wethington, S. M., and S. M. Russell. 2003. The seasonal distribution and abundance of hummingbirds in oak woodland and riparian communities in southeastern Arizona. Condor 105:484-495.

Ficken, M. F., K. M. Rusch, S. J. Taylor, and D. R. Powers. 2000. Blue-throated hummingbird song: a pinnacle of nonoscine vocalizations. Auk 117:120-128.

Ficken, M. F., K. M. Rusch, S. J. Taylor, and D. R. Powers. 2002. Reproductive behavior and communication in blue-throated hummingbirds. Wilson Bulletin 114:197-209.

Rusch, K. M., K. Thusius, and M. S. Ficken. 2001. The organization of agonistic vocalizations in ruby-throated hummingbirds with comparison to black-chinned hummingbirds. Wilson Bulletin 113:425-430.

Territorial Behavior
Hurly, T. A., R. E. D. Scott, and S. D. Healy. 2001. The function of displays of male rufous hummingbirds. Condor 103:647-651.

Pizo, M. A., and W. R. Silva. 2001. The dawn lek of the swallow-tailed hummingbird. Wilson Bulletin 113:388-397.

Powers, D. R. 1987. Effects of variation in food quality on the breeding territoriality of the male Anna's hummingbird. Condor 89:103-111.

Related Hummingibrd Pages:


Hummingbird Feeders

Hummingbird Food Recipe

Attracting Hummingbirds

Hummingbird Habitat

Hummingbird Garden

Hummingbird Flowers

Hummingbird Gifts

Hummingbird Migration

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Broad-tailed Hummingbird

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